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PROF. CELINA ADANNA ULOAKU MADUEMEZIA, SFIARSA

PROF. CELINA ADANNA ULOAKU MADUEMEZIA, SFIARSA

PROF. SYED MOHAMMED TAHIR, , SFIARSA

PROF. SYED MOHAMMED TAHIR, , SFIARSA

PROF. DR. V. BALACHANDRAN

PROF. DR. V. BALACHANDRAN

ENGR. PROF. AAA. ATAYERO, SFIARSA

ENGR. PROF. AAA. ATAYERO, SFIARSA

PAPERS ON REVIEW

Don’t just come to work. Come to change.

The Impact of Drug Economy on Macroeconomic Aggregates: Evidence – Afghanistan

 

Asst. Prof. Abdul Ahad Zahid (MSc. Management and Economics – Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany)

Head of Quality Assurance Department, Kandahar University

 

Asst. Prof. Rahmatullah Pashtoon (M.B.A. Financial Management, SPSS IBM, DIR, DIB – Pune, India)

HoD, National Economics Dept., Economics Faculty, Kandahar University

Abstract

The main problem that GDP and the BoP-data are confronted within developing countries is the fact that informal and illegal transactions are not included in this data. Therefore, the published statistics do not show a true picture with respect to developing countries' economic performance. This problem is tremendously large in Afghanistan, a country with a very large drug sector. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of the drug (opium and heroin) sector on macroeconomic aggregates in Afghanistan over the period of 2011 – 2015. The study is based on a descriptive statistical approach, using GDP measurement approaches, BoP format and floating exchange rate regime theories. The net export values of the Afghan drug sector are gathered and secondary data is used. Results show that Afghanistan’sactual[1] GDP was an estimated to US$ 18.74 billion by 2011, of which US$ 2.4 billion is share of drug income. In the same year actual[2] trade deficit was estimated to US$ -5135million, however, drug income offsets the deficit by US$ 2400 million. Furthermore, due toa huge trade deficit Afghani must loss its value because Afghanistan’s central bank has to supply Afghani and buy foreign currencyto offset the trade deficit gap, however, Afghani is not depreciated yet. Thus, the drug income circulates in currency market of the country, which keeps Afghani exchange rate stable. Finally, conclusions are made that the drug sector made official macroeconomic data unrealistic andpositively supported GDP, balance of payments and Afghani exchange rate in the country.

 

Keywords: Afghanistan, Trade Deficit, Current Account Adjustment, Foreign Exchange, Underground Economy

 

JEL Classification: N55, H62, F32, F31, E26

 

- The Impact of Drug Economy on Macroeconomic Aggregates: Evidence – Afghanistan

CORPORATE MIS-GOVERNANCE- CAUSES AND REMEDIES

 

Prof Dr.V.BALACHANDRAN*

ABSTRACT

Corporate Governance forms part of a broader international effort to promote increased transparency, integrity and the rule of law.  A good corporate governance regime helps corporates to augment the resources easily from capital market as they enjoy good brand. No doubt with good will built over years, corporates endeavour to achieve excellence in all its spheres.  Corporate governance is about promoting corporate fairness, transparency and accountability. Corporate governance is a key element in enhancing investor confidence, promoting competitiveness, and ultimately improving economic grow.

The nature of the corporate governance problems that countries face varies over time and between countries. One factor of importance is ownership structure, as it defines the nature of principal-agent issues. Another factor is group-affiliation, which is especially important in emerging markets.   It would be appropriate to mention that corporate crimes and irregularities in European and western countries are being dealt with sternly and as a result of which the decisions are taken fast and quicker. The business community has also made efforts to establish its rights by pointing out the cases of over-regulation by a regulatory body.  The corporates though have laudable principles, norms and code of conduct, but are not being practiced. This is evidenced by closure of big corporate houses creating an economic imbalance. The legal enactments have not been adhered in total and everywhere stakeholders noticed flouting of norms, procedures and deviations from the ethical practices by the corporates.

 

Keywords: Corporate Governance, ownership structure, Group affiliation, transparency, Accountability. 

________________________________________________________________________

Registrar i/c and Professor, Faculty of Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India.          Email:drvbchand@gmail.com

 

Corporate MIS-Governance – Causes and Remedies

Prof. Dr. V. Balachandran, Registrar i/c and Professor, Faculty of Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India.          Email:drvbchand@gmail.com

 

- CORPORATE MIS-GOVERNANCE- CAUSES AND REMEDIES

SITE VARIATION OF Jatropha curcas SEEDS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF BIODIESEL                                                                 

By

 

1Geply, O.A., 2Oyun, M.B. and 2Oluyege, A. O.

1Department of Forest Products Development and Utilization,

Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Jericho Hill, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Forestry and Wood Technology,

Federal University of Technology, P.M.B,704, Akure

Email: funkybaby20@ yahoo.co.uk.  Phone no: +234 8066986763

Abstract

The influence of site variation of Jatropha curcas on seed biodiesel yield and quality from three seed sources (Ibadan, New Bussa,  Kano) was investigated. Seeds were collected from the three sources and oils from the seeds were extracted. Thereafter, biodiesels from the oils were produced using standard laboratory methods. The design of experiments was a completely randomized design at three replicates per treatment. The biodiesels produced were subjected to physico chemical analysis to elicit the quality of the biodiesel from the three seed sources.

The seed yield from Ibadan seed source was higher (227.10g) than New Bussa and Kano seed sources. Also, New Bussa (175.20g) has higher seed yield than Kano seed source (51.30g). However, the oil yield from Kano seed source was higher (59%) than New Bussa seed source (44.25%) while it was lowest (39.38%) for Ibadan, seed source. The biodiesel yield from Kano seed source (76.94%) was higher than New Bussa seed source (64.45%) and lowest for Ibadan (49.44%) seed source. With respect to quality, biodiesel from Kano seed source has the highest quality of biodiesel judging from the physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced from the seeds collected from the three seed sources. Jatropha curcas grown in forest and savanna ecological zone of Nigeria has a potential for high oil yield and high quality of biodiesel production.

 

 

- SITE VARIATION OF Jatropha curcas SEEDS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF BIODIESEL